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References and Further Reading

Please find below some key studies for further reading.


  1. Hui-Chen, L. & Mackie K., (2016) Biol Psychiatry. 79: 516–525. An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  2. Hillard, CJ., Neuropsychopharmacology (2018) 43, 155–172. Circulating Endocannabinoids: From Whence Do They Come and Where are They Going?

  3. Yamamoto, T., et al. (2021) PAIN in press Selective targeting of peripheral cannabinoid receptors prevents behavioral symptoms and sensitization of trigeminal neurons in mouse models of migraine and medication overuse headache.

  4. Wen, L.S. & Sadeghi NB., (2020) Lancet 396:1316-1319. The opioid crisis and the 2020 US election: crossroads for a national epidemic

  5. Casey, SL., et al. (2017) PAIN 158: 2452-2460. Cannabis constituent synergy in a mouse of neuropathic pain.

  6. The National Academies Press (2011). Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research.

  7. Romero-Sandavol, A., et al. (2015) Pharmacotherapy 35:917-925. Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pain.

  8. Woodhams, SG., et al. (2015) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 227: 119-143. The role of the endocannabinoid system in pain.

  9. Donvito, G., et al. (2018) Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews 43:52-79. The Endogenous Cannabinoid System: A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain


  1. Munson, A., et al. (1975) Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 

  2. Bifulco, M., et al. (2006) Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumor strategy. British Journal of Pharmacology.

  3. Moreau, M., et al. (2019) Flavonoid Derivative of Cannabis Demonstrates Therapeutic Potential in Preclinical Models of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer. Frontiers in Oncology.


  1. Munson, A., et al. (1975) Antineoplastic activity of   cannabinoids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  2. Wilkinson, JD., et al. (2007) Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. J Dermatolog Sci 45:87-92. 

  3. Ke, P., et al. (2016) Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 ameliorates dssinduced colitis through inhibiting nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. PLoS One 11(9):e0155076.

  4. Kimball, ES., et al. (2006) Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 291:364-71.

  5. El Bakali, J., et al. (2015) Conformational restriction leading to a selective CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist orally active against colitis. ACS Med Chem Lett 6:198-203.

  6. Malfait, AM., et al. (2000) The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:9561–9566.

  7. Fukuda, S., et al. (2014) Cannabinoid receptor 2 as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 15:275.

  8. Gui, H., et al. (2015) Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates synovitis and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis. Immunobiology 220:817–822.


  1. Paty, DW., et al. (1998) Multiple sclerosis. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 1998.

  2. Zajicek, JP., et al. (2003) Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 362:1517-1526.

  3. Zajicek, JP., et al. (2005) Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1664–1669.

  4. Wade, DT., et al. (2004) Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult Scler 10:434–441.

  5. Rog, DJ., et al. (2005) Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 65:812–819.

  6. Kavia, RB., et al. (2010) Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:1125–1132.

  7. Zajicek, JP., et al (2012) Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:1125–1132.

  8. Fisher, RS., et al. (2014) ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia 55:475-82.

  9. O’Connell, BK., et al. (2017) Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review. Epilepsy Behav 70:341–8.

  10. Suraev, A., et al. (2017) An Australian nationwide survey on medicinal cannabis use for epilepsy: history of antiepileptic drug treatment predicts medicinal cannabis use. Epilepsy Behav 70:334–40.

  11. Kwan, P., et al. (2010) Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad hoc task force of the ILAE commission on therapeutic strategies. Epilepsia 51:1069–77.

  12. Dos Santos, RG., et al. (2015) Phytocannabinoids and epilepsy. J Clin Pharm Ther 40:135–43. 

  13. Dos Santos, RG., et al. (2015) Phytocannabinoids and epilepsy. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.